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    2 us präsident

    2 us präsident

    Alle Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (einschließlich der 1. George Washington (geb. , † ), – , Föderalist. 2. John Adams. Die USA blicken auf eine lange Geschichte seiner Präsidenten zurück, da die Liste mit dem Liste der amerikanischen Präsidenten. 1. George Washington ( ) 2. . Die US Wahlen werden ohne Barack Obama bestritten. John Adams (* Oktober/ Oktober in Braintree, Suffolk County, Province of 2 Überzeugungen und Ansichten; 3 Nachleben Trotzdem gehört Adams zu den sieben US-Präsidenten, die während ihrer Amtszeit kein einziges Mal.

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    USA Top Secret: Das geheime Buch der US-Präsidenten (1)

    For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States. Executive branch of the U. Government Executive Office of the President.

    President [1] [2] The Honorable [3]. Head of State Head of Government. Constitution of the United States Law Taxation.

    Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties. Powers of the President of the United States.

    Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.

    For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Four ruffles and flourishes and 'Hail to the Chief' long version.

    Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency. United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.

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    September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Government of the United States portal. Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph.

    Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.

    Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved September 4, The People Debate the Constitution, — New York, New York: A forgotten huge day in American history".

    Retrieved July 29, Retrieved January 22, The History of Power". Proceedings of the American Political Science Association.

    Origins and Development 5th ed. Its Origins and Development. The Making of the American Constitution. Commander in Chief Clause". National Constitution Center Educational Resources some internal navigation required.

    Retrieved May 23, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. McPherson, Tried by War: United States Department of Defense.

    Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved February 25, About the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Federalist 69 reposting. Retrieved June 15, Archived from the original PDF on November 26, Retrieved December 15, No clear mechanism or requirement exists today for the president and Congress to consult.

    The War Powers Resolution of contains only vague consultation requirements. Instead, it relies on reporting requirements that, if triggered, begin the clock running for Congress to approve the particular armed conflict.

    By the terms of the Resolution, however, Congress need not act to disapprove the conflict; the cessation of all hostilities is required in 60 to 90 days merely if Congress fails to act.

    Many have criticized this aspect of the Resolution as unwise and unconstitutional, and no president in the past 35 years has filed a report "pursuant" to these triggering provisions.

    The President's War Powers". Retrieved September 28, Retrieved November 8, Presidents have sent forces abroad more than times; Congress has declared war only five times: President Reagan told Congress of the invasion of Grenada two hours after he had ordered the landing.

    He told Congressional leaders of the bombing of Libya while the aircraft were on their way. It was not clear whether the White House consulted with Congressional leaders about the military action, or notified them in advance.

    Foley, the Speaker of the House, said on Tuesday night that he had not been alerted by the Administration. Retrieved August 7, Retrieved February 5, Noel Canning , U.

    United States , U. Olson , U. Retrieved January 23, But not since President Gerald R. Ford granted clemency to former President Richard M.

    Nixon for possible crimes in Watergate has a Presidential pardon so pointedly raised the issue of whether the President was trying to shield officials for political purposes.

    The prosecutor charged that Mr. Weinberger's efforts to hide his notes may have 'forestalled impeachment proceedings against President Reagan' and formed part of a pattern of 'deception and obstruction.

    In light of President Bush's own misconduct, we are gravely concerned about his decision to pardon others who lied to Congress and obstructed official investigations.

    Former president Clinton issued pardons on his last day in office, including several to controversial figures, such as commodities trader Rich, then a fugitive on tax evasion charges.

    Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 8, Retrieved November 29, Archived from the original PDF on December 13, Retrieved November 9, Use of the state secrets privilege in courts has grown significantly over the last twenty-five years.

    In the twenty-three years between the decision in Reynolds [] and the election of Jimmy Carter, in , there were four reported cases in which the government invoked the privilege.

    Between and , there were a total of fifty-one reported cases in which courts ruled on invocation of the privilege.

    Because reported cases only represent a fraction of the total cases in which the privilege is invoked or implicated, it is unclear precisely how dramatically the use of the privilege has grown.

    But the increase in reported cases is indicative of greater willingness to assert the privilege than in the past. American Civil Liberties Union.

    Retrieved October 4, Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved November 11, The American Bar Association said President Bush's use of "signing statements", which allow him to sign a bill into law but not enforce certain provisions, disregards the rule of law and the separation of powers.

    Legal experts discuss the implications. Boy Scouts of America. The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved July 30, Retrieved May 14, Retrieved May 6, Archived from the original on December 28, The Kennedy White House Restoration.

    The White House Historical Association. Presidential idolatry is "Bad for Democracy " ". Twin Cities Daily Planet. But while her voiceover delivered a scathing critique, the video footage was all drawn from carefully-staged photo-ops of Reagan smiling with seniors and addressing large crowds U of Minnesota Press.

    Even before Kennedy ran for Congress, he had become fascinated, through his Hollywood acquaintances and visits, with the idea of image Gene Healy argues that because voters expect the president to do everything When they inevitably fail to keep their promises, voters swiftly become disillusioned.

    Yet they never lose their romantic idea that the president should drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees.

    Bush White House's claims are rooted in ideas "about the 'divine' right of kings" Retrieved September 20, Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch".

    Ginsberg and Crenson unite". Retrieved September 21, There is the small, minority-owned firm with deep ties to President Obama's Chicago backers, made eligible by the Federal Reserve to handle potentially lucrative credit deals.

    Wilson, the group's president, tells his eager researchers. The Executive Branch, Annenberg Classroom". The National Constitution Center. Constitutional Interstices and the Twenty-Second Amendment".

    Archived from the original on January 15, Retrieved June 12, The Heritage Guide to the Constitution. The Annenberg Public Policy Center.

    CRS Report for Congress. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 2, Retrieved August 1, The Heritage Guide to The Constitution.

    Retrieved July 27, Retrieved February 20, From George Washington to George W. Bush 2nd revised ed. Office of the Historian, U. Retrieved July 24, Constitution of the United States of America: Retrieved August 3, A quick history of the presidential oath".

    Heritage Guide to the Constitution. The American Presidency Project [online]. University of California hosted. Retrieved July 19, Presidential and Vice Presidential Fast Facts".

    Retrieved January 2, Retrieved July 1, Data from Congressional Quarterly's Guide to the Presidency. Retrieved July 31, Dollar Amount, to Present".

    Few outsiders ever see the President's private enclave". Archived from the original on December 14, Nachdem ein Kompromiss in Fragen der Sklavenhaltung gefunden worden war, wurde auch Missouri Bundesstaat.

    Die liberianische Hauptstadt Monrovia ist nach James Monroe benannt. John Quincy Adams — Weil bei der Präsidentschaftswahl keiner der vier Kandidaten von derselben Partei die Mehrheit im Electoral College erhalten hatte, entschied das Repräsentantenhaus kontrovers die Wahl des Präsidenten.

    Sein unterlegener Gegner Andrew Jackson bezichtigte Adams der Korruption und wurde danach zu seinem Intimfeind; die Demokratisch-Republikanische Partei wurde gespalten und teilte sich in Adams Verbündete, die zukünftigen National-Republikaner , und diejenigen Jacksons auf.

    Seine Amtszeit war glück- und glanzlos. Nach seiner Amtseinführung führte er das Spoils-System ein, also die personelle Neubesetzung von Ämtern der Bundesbehörden.

    Der entstehende Abolitionismus sorgte für ernste Meinungsverschiedenheiten zwischen Nord- und Südstaaten , die sich auch in der Nullifikationskrise zeigen.

    Arkansas und Michigan traten als Bundesstaaten bei. Mit dem Indian Removal Act wurde die gesetzliche Grundlage zur Zwangsumsiedlung der östlich des Mississippi lebenden Indianer geschaffen.

    Sein Veto gegen die Verlängerung der Charta der Zentralbank und besonders seine Rede zu dessen Begründung zählen zu den Höhepunkten amerikanisch-demokratischer Tradition.

    Er wurde als erster Präsident nach Abschaffung des Zensuswahlrechts gewählt. Martin Van Buren — Bei ihm handelt es sich um den ersten und — bis zur Wahl von George Bush — lange Zeit einzigen ehemaligen Vizepräsidenten, der aus dieser Position heraus in das Amt des Präsidenten gewählt wurde.

    Auf dem Pfad der Tränen starben bei einer Zwangsumsiedlung ca. Da ihr Parteiführer Clay die Präsidentenwahl schon zweimal verloren hatte, bestimmten die Whigs den ehemaligen General Harrison, der eine ähnliche Reputation wie Andrew Jackson hatte, zu ihrem ersten Kandidaten.

    Harrison war nach der trotz schlechten Wetters gehaltenen, bis heute längsten Amtseinführungsrede erlittenen Lungenentzündung jedoch der erste US-Präsident, der während seiner Zeit im Amt verstarb und durch den amtierenden Vizepräsidenten ersetzt wurde.

    Sein Enkel Benjamin Harrison war von bis der Ursprünglich nur zur Sicherung von Stimmen aus dem Süden eingeplant, wurde Tyler der erste Vizepräsident, der durch den Tod des gewählten Präsidenten in das Amt aufrückte.

    Während seiner Amtszeit war es umstritten, ob er als vollwertiger oder nur Acting President anzusehen sei.

    Er vertrat jedoch vehement seinen Anspruch auf die Position als vollwertiger Präsident, womit die Amtsübernahme als Präzedenzfall für alle weiteren nachgerückten Vizepräsidenten gilt.

    In der Verfassung wurde das Nachrücken ins Präsidentenamt erst durch den Gegen die Neugründung der Nationalbank und zahlreiche Gesetzesvorhaben legte er sein Veto ein und wurde deshalb bald aus seiner Partei ausgeschlossen, woraufhin er teilweise mit den Demokraten zusammenarbeitete.

    Eine Wiederwahl mithilfe einer demokratischen Splittergruppe, die seine Bemühungen zur Expansion teilte, war faktisch nicht möglich. Er unterstützte deshalb die Nominierung des späteren Präsidenten James K.

    Polk, der sich parteiintern gegen den ehemaligen Präsidenten und Expansionsgegner Van Buren als Kandidat der Demokraten durchsetzte.

    Am Ende seiner Amtsperiode verzichtete Polk als erster Präsident freiwillig auf eine zweite Amtszeit. Taylor, der nie zuvor ein politisches Amt bekleidet hatte, verdankte seine Wahl in erster Linie seiner erfolgreichen militärischen Laufbahn.

    Obwohl selbst Sklavenbesitzer sprach er sich vehement gegen eine weitere Ausweitung der Sklaverei in den neu gewonnenen Westgebieten aus.

    Taylor war der zweite Präsident, der während der Amtszeit eines natürlichen Todes starb. Der Kompromiss von als friedlicher Ausgleich zwischen den Interessen der sklavenhaltenden Südstaaten und des freien Nordens verhinderte vorerst die sich abzeichnende Sezession.

    Für die Präsidentschaftswahl nominierte ihn seine Partei nicht zur Wiederwahl. Neben dem erfolgreich verlaufenen Gadsden-Kauf , mit dem Teilgebiete von Arizona und New Mexico erworben wurden, und dem misslungenen Plan, Kuba zu kaufen oder gewaltsam zu erobern, war die Amtszeit vor allem durch persönliche Probleme gekennzeichnet.

    Eine versuchte Wiederwahl scheiterte bereits an der verwährten Nominierung durch seine Partei. Die wirtschaftliche Krise von schwächte die gesamte Weltwirtschaft.

    Dies führte zur Sezession der ersten Südstaaten , wobei Buchanan nichts unternahm, um die Sezession aufzuhalten. Nach seiner Interpretation hätten zwar die Einzelstaaten kein Recht auf den Austritt aus der Union gehabt, allerdings hätte die US-Regierung auch nichts tun können, um sie davon abzuhalten.

    Im Jahr trat er nicht zur Wiederwahl an. Buchanan war bislang der einzige unverheiratete Präsident. Lincolns Präsidentschaft war durch den Bürgerkrieg mit den Konföderierten geprägt.

    Nach der Sezession von elf sklavenhaltenden Südstaaten führte Lincoln die Nordstaaten zum Sieg, setzte die Wiederherstellung der Union durch und beschloss mit dem Kurz nach Unterzeichnung der Kapitulation von Appomattox und seiner erfolgreichen Wiederwahl im Jahr wurde er von einem fanatischen Sympathisanten der Südstaaten, dem Schauspieler John Wilkes Booth , während einer Theatervorstellung erschossen und war damit der erste Präsident, der während seiner Zeit im Amt ermordet wurde.

    Seine Präsidentschaft gilt heute als eine der bedeutendsten in der US-Geschichte, da der von Lincoln siegreich geführte Bürgerkrieg eine Spaltung der Vereinigten Staaten in Nord und Süd verhinderte und die Sklaverei abschaffte.

    Doch blieb das Problem der gleichen Bürgerrechte für Afroamerikaner , für deren Gleichberechtigung Lincoln plädierte, für ein weiteres Jahrhundert bis zur Amtszeit von Lyndon B.

    Johnson rechtlich weitestgehend ungelöst. Obwohl beide ursprünglich verschiedenen Parteien angehörten, traten sie bei der Wahl von im Rahmen der National Union Party gemeinsam an.

    Die Hauptaufgabe seiner Präsidentschaft war nach dem Ende des Bürgerkrieges die gesellschaftliche und ökonomische Wiedereingliederung der Südstaaten Reconstruction.

    Diese wurde jedoch erschwert durch erhebliche Differenzen zwischen dem Präsidenten und dem amerikanischen Kongress. Johnson legte gegen mehrere Gesetze, die die Verbesserung von Lebensbedingungen von Schwarzen vorsahen, Vetos ein, die jedoch häufig vom Kongress mit der erforderlichen Zweidrittelmehrheit in beiden Kammern überstimmt wurden.

    Bedingt durch diese Differenzen kam es im Frühjahr zum ersten Amtsenthebungsverfahren der amerikanischen Geschichte, wobei dem Präsidenten insbesondere die Verletzung des umstrittenen Tenure of Office Act zur Last gelegt wurde.

    Der von Johnson getätigte Ankauf von Alaska war seinerzeit höchst umstritten. Zum Ende seiner Amtszeit wurde Johnson von den Demokraten nicht zum Kandidaten für die kommende Präsidentenwahl aufgestellt.

    Grant betrieb eine ambivalente Indianerpolitik. His intervention in the Pullman Strike of to keep the railroads moving angered labor unions nationwide in addition to the party in Illinois; his support of the gold standard and opposition to Free Silver alienated the agrarian wing of the Democratic Party.

    Biographer Allan Nevins wrote, "[I]n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities. He had no endowments that thousands of men do not have.

    He possessed honesty, courage, firmness, independence, and common sense. But he possessed them to a degree other men do not.

    Cleveland, the fifth of nine children, was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell, where his father was pastor at the time.

    He became known as Grover in his adult life. Financial conditions forced him to remove Grover from school into a two-year mercantile apprenticeship in Fayetteville.

    The experience was valuable and brief, and the living conditions quite austere. Grover returned to Clinton and his schooling at the completion of the apprentice contract.

    Cleveland received his elementary education at the Fayetteville Academy and the Clinton Liberal Academy. He returned home to Holland Patent at the end of , where an elder in his church offered to pay for his college education if he would promise to become a minister.

    Cleveland declined, and in he decided to move west. Allen , gave him a clerical job. Cleveland worked for the Rogers firm for three years, then left in to start his own practice.

    As a lawyer, Cleveland became known for his single-minded concentration and dedication to hard work.

    From his earliest involvement in politics, Cleveland aligned with the Democratic Party. Bass , the Republican nominee.

    Cleveland's service as sheriff was unremarkable; biographer Rexford Tugwell described the time in office as a waste for Cleveland politically.

    Cleveland was aware of graft in the sheriff's office during his tenure and chose not to confront it. After his term as sheriff ended, Cleveland returned to his law practice, opening a firm with his friends Lyman K.

    Bass and Wilson S. As biographer Allan Nevins wrote, "Probably no man in the country, on March 4, , had less thought than this limited, simple, sturdy attorney of Buffalo that four years later he would be standing in Washington and taking the oath as President of the United States.

    It was during this period that Cleveland began a relationship with a widow, Maria Crofts Halpin. She accused him of raping her. He had her institutionalized and her child taken away and raised by his friends.

    The illegitimate child became a campaign issue for the GOP in his first presidential campaign. In the s, the municipal government in Buffalo had grown increasingly corrupt, with Democratic and Republican political machines cooperating to share the spoils of political office.

    Cleveland's term as mayor was spent fighting the entrenched interests of the party machines. His veto message said, "I regard it as the culmination of a most bare-faced, impudent, and shameless scheme to betray the interests of the people, and to worse than squander the public money.

    New York Democratic party officials began to consider Cleveland a possible nominee for governor. Flower and Henry W.

    Their factions deadlocked, and the convention could not agree on a nominee. Cleveland brought his opposition to needless spending to the governor's office; he promptly sent the legislature eight vetos in his first two months in office.

    Cleveland's defiance of political corruption won him popular acclaim, and the enmity of the influential Tammany Hall organization in New York City.

    Blaine of Maine for president on the fourth ballot. Blaine's nomination alienated many Republicans who viewed Blaine as ambitious and immoral. Among the Democrats, Samuel J.

    Tilden was the initial front-runner, having been the party's nominee in the contested election of Bayard of Delaware , Allen G. Thurman of Ohio , Samuel Freeman Miller of Iowa , and Benjamin Butler of Massachusetts also had considerable followings, along with various favorite sons.

    Bayard had spoken in favor of secession in , making him unacceptable to Northerners; Butler, conversely, was reviled throughout the South for his actions during the Civil War ; Thurman was generally well liked, but was growing old and infirm, and his views on the silver question were uncertain.

    Hendricks of Indiana was selected as his running mate. Corruption in politics was the central issue in ; indeed, Blaine had over the span of his career been involved in several questionable deals.

    Hudson created Cleveland's contextual campaign slogan "A public office is a public trust. The campaign focused on the candidates' moral standards, as each side cast aspersions on their opponents.

    Cleveland's supporters rehashed the old allegations that Blaine had corruptly influenced legislation in favor of the Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad and the Union Pacific Railway , later profiting on the sale of bonds he owned in both companies.

    Blaine, the continental liar from the state of Maine, 'Burn this letter! Regarding Cleveland, commentator Jeff Jacoby notes that, "Not since George Washington had a candidate for President been so renowned for his rectitude.

    Aided by the sermons of Reverend George H. Ball, a minister from Buffalo, they made public the allegation that Cleveland had fathered an illegitimate child while he was a lawyer there, [91] and their rallies soon included the chant "Ma, Ma, where's my Pa?

    Burchard , gave a speech pivotal for the Democrats, denouncing them as the party of "Rum, Romanism , and Rebellion.

    They also blistered Blaine for attending a banquet with some of New York City's wealthiest men. After the votes were counted, Cleveland narrowly won all four of the swing states, including New York by votes.

    Soon after taking office, Cleveland was faced with the task of filling all the government jobs for which the president had the power of appointment.

    These jobs were typically filled under the spoils system , but Cleveland announced that he would not fire any Republican who was doing his job well, and would not appoint anyone solely on the basis of party service.

    Cleveland also reformed other parts of the government. In , he signed an act creating the Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Whitney undertook to modernize the navy and canceled construction contracts that had resulted in inferior ships. Lamar charged that the rights of way for this land must be returned to the public because the railroads failed to extend their lines according to agreements.

    Cleveland was the first Democratic President subject to the Tenure of Office Act which originated in ; the act purported to require the Senate to approve the dismissal of any presidential appointee who was originally subject to its advice and consent.

    Cleveland objected to the act in principle and his steadfast refusal to abide by it prompted its fall into disfavor and led to its ultimate repeal in Cleveland faced a Republican Senate and often resorted to using his veto powers.

    In his veto message, he espoused a theory of limited government:. I can find no warrant for such an appropriation in the Constitution, and I do not believe that the power and duty of the general government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in no manner properly related to the public service or benefit.

    A prevalent tendency to disregard the limited mission of this power and duty should, I think, be steadfastly resisted, to the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the government, the government should not support the people.

    The friendliness and charity of our countrymen can always be relied upon to relieve their fellow-citizens in misfortune. This has been repeatedly and quite lately demonstrated.

    Federal aid in such cases encourages the expectation of paternal care on the part of the government and weakens the sturdiness of our national character, while it prevents the indulgence among our people of that kindly sentiment and conduct which strengthens the bonds of a common brotherhood.

    One of the most volatile issues of the s was whether the currency should be backed by gold and silver , or by gold alone.

    Cleveland and Treasury Secretary Daniel Manning stood firmly on the side of the gold standard, and tried to reduce the amount of silver that the government was required to coin under the Bland-Allison Act of Bland , introduced a bill in that would require the government to coin unlimited amounts of silver, inflating the then-deflating currency.

    Another contentious financial issue at the time was the protective tariff. While it had not been a central point in his campaign, Cleveland's opinion on the tariff was that of most Democrats: In , a bill to reduce the tariff was narrowly defeated in the House.

    Randall , believed that American industries would fail without high tariffs, and they continued to fight reform efforts.

    Dispute over the tariff persisted into the presidential election. Cleveland was a committed non-interventionist who had campaigned in opposition to expansion and imperialism.

    He refused to promote the previous administration's Nicaragua canal treaty, and generally was less of an expansionist in foreign relations.

    Bayard , negotiated with Joseph Chamberlain of the United Kingdom over fishing rights in the waters off Canada, and struck a conciliatory note, despite the opposition of New England 's Republican Senators.

    Cleveland's military policy emphasized self-defense and modernization. Endicott to recommend a new coastal fortification system for the United States.

    Most of the Board's recommendations were implemented, and by , 27 locations were defended by over 70 forts. Endicott also proposed to Congress a system of examinations for Army officer promotions.

    Although completion of the four steel-hulled warships begun under the previous administration was delayed due to a corruption investigation and subsequent bankruptcy of their building yard, these ships were completed in a timely manner in naval shipyards once the investigation was over.

    These ships included the "second-class battleships " Maine and Texas , designed to match modern armored ships recently acquired by South American countries from Europe, such as the Brazilian battleship Riachuelo.

    Cleveland, like a growing number of Northerners and nearly all white Southerners saw Reconstruction as a failed experiment, and was reluctant to use federal power to enforce the 15th Amendment of the U.

    Constitution , which guaranteed voting rights to African Americans. Although Cleveland had condemned the "outrages" against Chinese immigrants, he believed that Chinese immigrants were unwilling to assimilate into white society.

    Cleveland viewed Native Americans as wards of the state , saying in his first inaugural address that "[t]his guardianship involves, on our part, efforts for the improvement of their condition and enforcement of their rights.

    It ultimately weakened the tribal governments and allowed individual Indians to sell land and keep the money.

    In the month before Cleveland's inauguration, President Arthur opened four million acres of Winnebago and Crow Creek Indian lands in the Dakota Territory to white settlement by executive order.

    Army, to investigate the matter. Cleveland entered the White House as a bachelor, and his sister Rose Cleveland joined him, to act as hostess for the first two years of his administration.

    In the daughter of Cleveland's friend Oscar Folsom visited him in Washington. When she returned to school, President Cleveland received her mother's permission to correspond with her, and they were soon engaged to be married.

    This marriage was unusual, since Cleveland was the executor of Oscar Folsom's estate and had supervised Frances's upbringing after her father's death; nevertheless, the public took no exception to the match.

    The Clevelands had five children: Ruth — , Esther — , Marion — , Richard — , and Francis Grover — British philosopher Philippa Foot was their granddaughter.

    During his first term, Cleveland successfully nominated two justices to the Supreme Court of the United States. The first, Lucius Q. While Lamar had been well liked as a Senator, his service under the Confederacy two decades earlier caused many Republicans to vote against him.

    Lamar's nomination was confirmed by the narrow margin of 32 to He had previously declined Cleveland's nomination to the Civil Service Commission , preferring his Chicago law practice.

    The Senate Judiciary Committee spent several months examining the little-known nominee, before the Senate confirmed the nomination 41 to Cleveland nominated 41 lower federal court judges in addition to his four Supreme Court justices.

    These included two judges to the United States circuit courts , nine judges to the United States Courts of Appeals , and 30 judges to the United States district courts.

    Because Cleveland served terms both before and after Congress eliminated the circuit courts in favor of the Courts of Appeals, he is one of only two presidents to have appointed judges to both bodies.

    The other, Benjamin Harrison, was in office at the time that the change was made. Thus, all of Cleveland's appointments to the circuit courts were made in his first term, and all of his appointments to the Courts of Appeals were made in his second.

    Morton of New York for vice president. Cleveland was easily renominated at the Democratic convention in St. Following Vice President Thomas A.

    Hendricks death in , the Democrats chose Allen G. Thurman of Ohio to be Cleveland's new running mate. The Republicans gained the upper hand in the campaign, as Cleveland's campaign was poorly managed by Calvin S.

    Brice and William H.

    Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency. Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendmentthe vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinetmay transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written fitzwilliam casino live online to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable paypal konto de discharge their presidential powers and duties. Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up Beste Spielothek in Schönenbuch finden become Free play slot machines games online President. Cleveland nominated 41 lower federal court judges in addition to his four Supreme Court justices. Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and neue online casinos mit bonus ohne einzahlung. Neben dem erfolgreich verlaufenen Gadsden-Kaufmit dem Moorhuhn 3 kostenlos spielen von Arizona und New Mexico Mo | Euro Palace Casino Blog wurden, und dem misslungenen Plan, Kuba zu kaufen oder gewaltsam zu erobern, war die Amtszeit vor allem durch persönliche Probleme gekennzeichnet. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged. Later, while president, Johnson postleitzahl 82 and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. The president's salary is set by Congress, and under Article II, Section 1, Clause 7 of the Constitution, may Beste Spielothek in Dedeleben finden be increased or reduced during his four kings casino ps4 cheats deutsch her current term of office. Retrieved July 30, Innenpolitisch bemühte sich Kennedy um Reformen und unterstützte die Bürgerrechtsbewegungdie die Aufhebung der Rassentrennung forderte. Ford versuchte erfolglos der Rezession und Inflation Herr zu werden. Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29,and on July 21, The Clevelands had five children: Arkansas und Michigan traten als Bundesstaaten bei.

    us präsident 2 -

    The New York Times. Die Amtszeit eines geschäftsführenden Präsidenten siehe oben ist ebenfalls begrenzt. Durch das Heranzoomen und die Zeitlupe wird die auf den ersten Blick unscheinbare Szene besonders in den Fokus der Wahrnehmung gerückt. Spiegel Online , 1. Adams blieb nach seiner Niederlage in der Wahl zur folgenden Amtszeit und der sich entwickelnden Dominanz von Jeffersons Demokratischen Republikanern der einzige Präsident der Föderalisten, die einige Jahre zuvor die Schaffung eines Präsidentenamtes noch entscheidend beeinflusst und vorangetrieben hatten. Im Vorwahlkampf der Republikaner für die Präsidentschaftswahl unterstützte und beriet Bush seinen Bruder Jeb , hielt sich jedoch lange im Hintergrund. Befugnisse des Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten. Der Biograph John E. Obwohl ihm die Minister einstimmig antworteten, dass hier ihrer Ansicht nach Hochverrat vorliege, entschied der Präsident im April anders. April eröffnete George W. Die Leistungen Adams, den er mit Georges Clemenceau verglich, veranschlagte er höher als die von Jefferson. Während Jefferson von seinen Gegnern als ein gottloser, nach Terrorherrschaft strebender Jakobiner dargestellt wurde, wurde Adams als verschwörerischer Monarchist verunglimpft, der einen seiner Söhne mit einer Tochter Georgs III. Dwayne Johnson Ind Die angestrebte Zusammenarbeit wurde jedoch einerseits von Madison und andererseits von der Führung der Föderalisten von Anfang an verhindert, so dass sich der konsensorientierte Präsident bereits in der frühen Amtszeit isoliert hatte. Präsident der USA, ging vor allem durch das bisher noch immer nicht vollständig aufgeklärte Attentat an ihm in die Geschichte ein. Anfangs noch loyal zur britischen Verfassung stehend, näherte er sich den nach Loslösung vom Mutterland strebenden Kolonisten zunehmend an. Aufgrund des fortgeschrittenen Alters führte Adams seine Anwaltstätigkeit nicht mehr fort und widmete sich dem Familienleben sowie den vielen Besuchern, die nach Peacefield kamen. Um Konsens zwischen den zwölf teilnehmenden Kolonien erreichen zu können, hielt sich das wegen seiner Radikalität verrufene Massachusetts zu Anfang des Kontinentalkongresses zurück. Mit ihrer gewonnen Mehrheit im Repräsentantenhaus könnten die Demokraten Untersuchungen gegen Trump bis hin zu einem Amtsenthebungsverfahren einleiten. Mai brachte Adams mit Richard Henry Lee einen Gesetzesentwurf ein, der die Dreizehn Kolonien dazu aufforderte, neue Regierungen zu bilden, und wider Erwarten einstimmig angenommen wurde. März mehrere gefangene Steuergegner zum Abtransport nach Philadelphia vorbereiteten, wurden sie in Bethlehem von einer Mann starken Miliz umzingelt, die unter dem Kommando von John Fries stand. Wer an den Caucuses bzw. Ellis darauf hin, dass in der Geschichtswissenschaft die Beschäftigung mit Adams aufgrund der Erforschung seiner umfangreichen Korrespondenzen einen Neuanfang erlebe.

    Blaine's nomination alienated many Republicans who viewed Blaine as ambitious and immoral. Among the Democrats, Samuel J.

    Tilden was the initial front-runner, having been the party's nominee in the contested election of Bayard of Delaware , Allen G.

    Thurman of Ohio , Samuel Freeman Miller of Iowa , and Benjamin Butler of Massachusetts also had considerable followings, along with various favorite sons.

    Bayard had spoken in favor of secession in , making him unacceptable to Northerners; Butler, conversely, was reviled throughout the South for his actions during the Civil War ; Thurman was generally well liked, but was growing old and infirm, and his views on the silver question were uncertain.

    Hendricks of Indiana was selected as his running mate. Corruption in politics was the central issue in ; indeed, Blaine had over the span of his career been involved in several questionable deals.

    Hudson created Cleveland's contextual campaign slogan "A public office is a public trust. The campaign focused on the candidates' moral standards, as each side cast aspersions on their opponents.

    Cleveland's supporters rehashed the old allegations that Blaine had corruptly influenced legislation in favor of the Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad and the Union Pacific Railway , later profiting on the sale of bonds he owned in both companies.

    Blaine, the continental liar from the state of Maine, 'Burn this letter! Regarding Cleveland, commentator Jeff Jacoby notes that, "Not since George Washington had a candidate for President been so renowned for his rectitude.

    Aided by the sermons of Reverend George H. Ball, a minister from Buffalo, they made public the allegation that Cleveland had fathered an illegitimate child while he was a lawyer there, [91] and their rallies soon included the chant "Ma, Ma, where's my Pa?

    Burchard , gave a speech pivotal for the Democrats, denouncing them as the party of "Rum, Romanism , and Rebellion. They also blistered Blaine for attending a banquet with some of New York City's wealthiest men.

    After the votes were counted, Cleveland narrowly won all four of the swing states, including New York by votes.

    Soon after taking office, Cleveland was faced with the task of filling all the government jobs for which the president had the power of appointment.

    These jobs were typically filled under the spoils system , but Cleveland announced that he would not fire any Republican who was doing his job well, and would not appoint anyone solely on the basis of party service.

    Cleveland also reformed other parts of the government. In , he signed an act creating the Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Whitney undertook to modernize the navy and canceled construction contracts that had resulted in inferior ships. Lamar charged that the rights of way for this land must be returned to the public because the railroads failed to extend their lines according to agreements.

    Cleveland was the first Democratic President subject to the Tenure of Office Act which originated in ; the act purported to require the Senate to approve the dismissal of any presidential appointee who was originally subject to its advice and consent.

    Cleveland objected to the act in principle and his steadfast refusal to abide by it prompted its fall into disfavor and led to its ultimate repeal in Cleveland faced a Republican Senate and often resorted to using his veto powers.

    In his veto message, he espoused a theory of limited government:. I can find no warrant for such an appropriation in the Constitution, and I do not believe that the power and duty of the general government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in no manner properly related to the public service or benefit.

    A prevalent tendency to disregard the limited mission of this power and duty should, I think, be steadfastly resisted, to the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the government, the government should not support the people.

    The friendliness and charity of our countrymen can always be relied upon to relieve their fellow-citizens in misfortune. This has been repeatedly and quite lately demonstrated.

    Federal aid in such cases encourages the expectation of paternal care on the part of the government and weakens the sturdiness of our national character, while it prevents the indulgence among our people of that kindly sentiment and conduct which strengthens the bonds of a common brotherhood.

    One of the most volatile issues of the s was whether the currency should be backed by gold and silver , or by gold alone.

    Cleveland and Treasury Secretary Daniel Manning stood firmly on the side of the gold standard, and tried to reduce the amount of silver that the government was required to coin under the Bland-Allison Act of Bland , introduced a bill in that would require the government to coin unlimited amounts of silver, inflating the then-deflating currency.

    Another contentious financial issue at the time was the protective tariff. While it had not been a central point in his campaign, Cleveland's opinion on the tariff was that of most Democrats: In , a bill to reduce the tariff was narrowly defeated in the House.

    Randall , believed that American industries would fail without high tariffs, and they continued to fight reform efforts. Dispute over the tariff persisted into the presidential election.

    Cleveland was a committed non-interventionist who had campaigned in opposition to expansion and imperialism. He refused to promote the previous administration's Nicaragua canal treaty, and generally was less of an expansionist in foreign relations.

    Bayard , negotiated with Joseph Chamberlain of the United Kingdom over fishing rights in the waters off Canada, and struck a conciliatory note, despite the opposition of New England 's Republican Senators.

    Cleveland's military policy emphasized self-defense and modernization. Endicott to recommend a new coastal fortification system for the United States.

    Most of the Board's recommendations were implemented, and by , 27 locations were defended by over 70 forts. Endicott also proposed to Congress a system of examinations for Army officer promotions.

    Although completion of the four steel-hulled warships begun under the previous administration was delayed due to a corruption investigation and subsequent bankruptcy of their building yard, these ships were completed in a timely manner in naval shipyards once the investigation was over.

    These ships included the "second-class battleships " Maine and Texas , designed to match modern armored ships recently acquired by South American countries from Europe, such as the Brazilian battleship Riachuelo.

    Cleveland, like a growing number of Northerners and nearly all white Southerners saw Reconstruction as a failed experiment, and was reluctant to use federal power to enforce the 15th Amendment of the U.

    Constitution , which guaranteed voting rights to African Americans. Although Cleveland had condemned the "outrages" against Chinese immigrants, he believed that Chinese immigrants were unwilling to assimilate into white society.

    Cleveland viewed Native Americans as wards of the state , saying in his first inaugural address that "[t]his guardianship involves, on our part, efforts for the improvement of their condition and enforcement of their rights.

    It ultimately weakened the tribal governments and allowed individual Indians to sell land and keep the money.

    In the month before Cleveland's inauguration, President Arthur opened four million acres of Winnebago and Crow Creek Indian lands in the Dakota Territory to white settlement by executive order.

    Army, to investigate the matter. Cleveland entered the White House as a bachelor, and his sister Rose Cleveland joined him, to act as hostess for the first two years of his administration.

    In the daughter of Cleveland's friend Oscar Folsom visited him in Washington. When she returned to school, President Cleveland received her mother's permission to correspond with her, and they were soon engaged to be married.

    This marriage was unusual, since Cleveland was the executor of Oscar Folsom's estate and had supervised Frances's upbringing after her father's death; nevertheless, the public took no exception to the match.

    The Clevelands had five children: Ruth — , Esther — , Marion — , Richard — , and Francis Grover — British philosopher Philippa Foot was their granddaughter.

    During his first term, Cleveland successfully nominated two justices to the Supreme Court of the United States. The first, Lucius Q.

    While Lamar had been well liked as a Senator, his service under the Confederacy two decades earlier caused many Republicans to vote against him.

    Lamar's nomination was confirmed by the narrow margin of 32 to He had previously declined Cleveland's nomination to the Civil Service Commission , preferring his Chicago law practice.

    The Senate Judiciary Committee spent several months examining the little-known nominee, before the Senate confirmed the nomination 41 to Cleveland nominated 41 lower federal court judges in addition to his four Supreme Court justices.

    These included two judges to the United States circuit courts , nine judges to the United States Courts of Appeals , and 30 judges to the United States district courts.

    Because Cleveland served terms both before and after Congress eliminated the circuit courts in favor of the Courts of Appeals, he is one of only two presidents to have appointed judges to both bodies.

    The other, Benjamin Harrison, was in office at the time that the change was made. Thus, all of Cleveland's appointments to the circuit courts were made in his first term, and all of his appointments to the Courts of Appeals were made in his second.

    Morton of New York for vice president. Cleveland was easily renominated at the Democratic convention in St. Following Vice President Thomas A.

    Hendricks death in , the Democrats chose Allen G. Thurman of Ohio to be Cleveland's new running mate. The Republicans gained the upper hand in the campaign, as Cleveland's campaign was poorly managed by Calvin S.

    Brice and William H. Barnum , whereas Harrison had engaged more aggressive fundraisers and tacticians in Matt Quay and John Wanamaker. The Republicans campaigned heavily on the tariff issue, turning out protectionist voters in the important industrial states of the North.

    Hill , weakening Cleveland's support in that swing state. But unlike that year, when Cleveland had triumphed in all four, in he won only two, losing his home state of New York by 14, votes.

    As Frances Cleveland left the White House, she told a staff member, "Now, Jerry, I want you to take good care of all the furniture and ornaments in the house, for I want to find everything just as it is now, when we come back again.

    This affiliation was more of an office-sharing arrangement, though quite compatible. Cleveland's law practice brought only a moderate income, perhaps because Cleveland spent considerable time at the couple's vacation home Gray Gables at Buzzard Bay, where fishing became his obsession.

    The Harrison administration worked with Congress to pass the McKinley Tariff , an aggressively protectionist measure and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act , which increased money backed by silver; [] these were among policies Cleveland deplored as dangerous to the nation's financial health.

    Cleveland's enduring reputation as chief executive and his recent pronouncements on the monetary issues made him a leading contender for the Democratic nomination.

    Hill , a Senator for New York. Stevenson of Illinois, a silverite. Gray of Indiana for vice president, they accepted the convention favorite. The Republicans re-nominated President Harrison, making the election a rematch of the one four years earlier.

    Unlike the turbulent and controversial elections of , , and , the election was, according to Cleveland biographer Allan Nevins , "the cleanest, quietest, and most creditable in the memory of the post-war generation," [] in part because Harrison's wife, Caroline, was dying of tuberculosis.

    Following Caroline Harrison's death on October 25, two weeks before the national election, Cleveland and all of the other candidates stopped campaigning, thus making Election Day a somber and quiet event for the whole country as well as the candidates.

    The issue of the tariff worked to the Republicans' advantage in The legislative revisions of the past four years also made imported goods so expensive that now many voters favored tariff reform and were skeptical of big business.

    Weaver promised Free Silver, generous veterans' pensions, and an eight-hour work day. Shortly after Cleveland's second term began, the Panic of struck the stock market, and he soon faced an acute economic depression.

    Cleveland, forced against his better judgment to lobby the Congress for repeal, convinced enough Democrats — and along with eastern Republicans, they formed a 48—37 majority for repeal.

    Having succeeded in reversing the Harrison administration's silver policy, Cleveland sought next to reverse the effects of the McKinley tariff.

    Wilson in December The bill was next considered in the Senate, where it faced stronger opposition from key Democrats led by Arthur Pue Gorman of Maryland, who insisted on more protection for their states' industries than the Wilson bill allowed.

    In , Cleveland had campaigned against the Lodge Bill , [] which would have strengthened voting rights protections through the appointing of federal supervisors of congressional elections upon a petition from the citizens of any district.

    The Enforcement Act of had provided for a detailed federal overseeing of the electoral process, from registration to the certification of returns.

    Cleveland succeeded in ushering in the repeal of this law ch. Harris , U. Teasley , U. The Panic of had damaged labor conditions across the United States, and the victory of anti-silver legislation worsened the mood of western laborers.

    Coxey began to march east toward Washington, D. The Pullman Strike had a significantly greater impact than Coxey's Army.

    A strike began against the Pullman Company over low wages and twelve-hour workdays, and sympathy strikes, led by American Railway Union leader Eugene V.

    Debs , soon followed. Altgeld of Illinois, who became his bitter foe in Leading newspapers of both parties applauded Cleveland's actions, but the use of troops hardened the attitude of organized labor toward his administration.

    The warning was appropriate, for in the Congressional elections, Republicans won their biggest landslide in decades, taking full control of the House, while the Populists lost most of their support.

    Cleveland's factional enemies gained control of the Democratic Party in state after state, including full control in Illinois and Michigan, and made major gains in Ohio, Indiana, Iowa and other states.

    Wisconsin and Massachusetts were two of the few states that remained under the control of Cleveland's allies. The Democratic opposition were close to controlling two-thirds of the vote at the national convention, which they needed to nominate their own candidate.

    They failed for lack of unity and a national leader, as Illinois governor John Peter Altgeld had been born in Germany and was ineligible to be nominated for president.

    When Cleveland took office he faced the question of Hawaiian annexation. In his first term, he had supported free trade with Hawai'i and accepted an amendment that gave the United States a coaling and naval station in Pearl Harbor.

    In early they overthrew her , set up a republican government under Sanford B. Dole , and sought to join the United States.

    Cleveland agreed with Blount's report, which found the populace to be opposed to annexation. Closer to home, Cleveland adopted a broad interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine that not only prohibited new European colonies, but also declared an American national interest in any matter of substance within the hemisphere.

    The second Cleveland administration was as committed to military modernization as the first, and ordered the first ships of a navy capable of offensive action.

    Construction continued on the Endicott program of coastal fortifications begun under Cleveland's first administration.

    Herbert , having recently adopted the aggressive naval strategy advocated by Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan , successfully proposed ordering five battleships the Kearsarge and Illinois classes and sixteen torpedo boats.

    The battleships and seven of the torpedo boats were not completed until —, after the Spanish—American War. In the midst of the fight for repeal of Free Silver coinage in , Cleveland sought the advice of the White House doctor, Dr.

    O'Reilly, about soreness on the roof of his mouth and a crater-like edge ulcer with a granulated surface on the left side of Cleveland's hard palate.

    Samples of the tumor were sent anonymously to the Army Medical Museum. The diagnosis was not a malignant cancer, but instead an epithelioma.

    Cleveland decided to have surgery secretly, to avoid further panic that might worsen the financial depression. Joseph Bryant , left for New York.

    The surgeons operated aboard the Oneida , a yacht owned by Cleveland's friend E. Benedict , as it sailed off Long Island. Keen , wrote an article detailing the operation.

    Cleveland enjoyed many years of life after the tumor was removed, and there was some debate as to whether it was actually malignant.

    Several doctors, including Dr. Keen, stated after Cleveland's death that the tumor was a carcinoma. Cleveland's trouble with the Senate hindered the success of his nominations to the Supreme Court in his second term.

    Hornblower to the Court. Cleveland continued to defy the Senate by next appointing Wheeler Hazard Peckham another New York attorney who had opposed Hill's machine in that state.

    Coudert , but Cleveland acquiesced in an inoffensive choice, that of Senator Edward Douglass White of Louisiana , whose nomination was accepted unanimously.

    No new states were admitted to the Union during Cleveland's first term. On February 22, , 10 days before leaving office, the 50th Congress passed the Enabling Act of , authorizing North Dakota , South Dakota , Montana , and Washington to form state governments and to gain admission to the Union.

    All four officially became states in November , during the first year of Benjamin Harrison's administration.

    Cleveland signed it on July 16, Cleveland's agrarian and silverite enemies gained control of the Democratic party in , repudiated his administration and the gold standard, and nominated William Jennings Bryan on a Silver Platform.

    In the conservatives, with Cleveland's support, regained control of the Democratic Party and nominated Alton B. In a article in The Ladies Home Journal , Cleveland weighed in on the women's suffrage movement, writing that "sensible and responsible women do not want to vote.

    The relative positions to be assumed by men and women in the working out of our civilization were assigned long ago by a higher intelligence.

    The incumbent, John F. Dryden , was not seeking re-election, and some Democrats felt that the former president could attract the votes of some disaffected Republican legislators who might be drawn to Cleveland's statesmanship and conservatism.

    Cleveland's health had been declining for several years, and in the autumn of he fell seriously ill. In his first term in office, Cleveland sought a summer house to escape the heat and smells of Washington, D.

    He secretly bought a farmhouse, Oak View or Oak Hill , in a rural upland part of the District of Columbia, in , and remodeled it into a Queen Anne style summer estate.

    He sold Oak View upon losing his bid for re-election in Not long thereafter, suburban residential development reached the area, which came to be known as Oak View, and then Cleveland Heights, and eventually Cleveland Park.

    Cleveland Hall houses the offices of the college president, vice presidents, and other administrative functions and student services.

    Cleveland was a member of the first board of directors of the then Buffalo Normal School. Mount Cleveland , a volcano in Alaska, is also named after him.

    President who was filmed. This twelve-cent issue accompanied a thirteen-cent stamp in the same definitive series that depicted his old rival Benjamin Harrison.

    Cleveland's only two subsequent stamp appearances have been in issues devoted to the full roster of U.

    Presidents, released, respectively, in and Cleveland's portrait was on the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States presidential election, and Grover Cleveland Presidential campaign, List of federal judges appointed by Grover Cleveland.

    Venezuela Crisis of The Nominating Conventions of — by Stan M. Benninsky survived the war. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.

    The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January.

    If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.

    Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.

    For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of There have been two contingent presidential elections in the nation's history.

    A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.

    Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.

    Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.

    Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.

    Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.

    This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

    Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath.

    When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.

    Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.

    Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in , [98] as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term.

    In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

    Four years later, with the U. In response to the unprecedented length of Roosevelt's presidency, the Twenty-second Amendment was adopted in The amendment bars anyone from being elected president more than twice, or once if that person served more than two years 24 months of another president's four-year term.

    Truman , president when this term limit came into force, was exempted from its limitations, and briefly sought a second full term—to which he would have otherwise been ineligible for election, as he had been president for more than two years of Roosevelt's fourth term—before he withdrew from the election.

    Since the amendment's adoption, five presidents have served two full terms: Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H.

    Bush sought a second term, but were defeated. Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it.

    Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F. Kennedy 's unexpired term, was eligible for a second full term in , but withdrew from Democratic Primary.

    Additionally, Gerald Ford , who served out the last two years and five months of Nixon's second term, sought a full term, but was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the election.

    Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

    Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

    Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

    Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

    Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

    The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

    Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W.

    Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

    If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

    If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

    Section 1 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment states that the vice president becomes president upon the removal from office, death, or resignation of the preceding president.

    Speaker of the House, then, if necessary, the President pro tempore of the Senate, and then if necessary, the eligible heads of federal executive departments who form the president's Cabinet.

    The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

    Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

    No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.

    Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.

    Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.

    Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.

    He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The president's salary is set by Congress, and under Article II, Section 1, Clause 7 of the Constitution, may not be increased or reduced during his or her current term of office.

    The White House in Washington, D. The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there.

    At various times in U. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.

    Camp David , officially titled Naval Support Facility Thurmont, a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland , is the president's country residence.

    A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s.

    Blair House , located next to the Eisenhower Executive Office Building at the White House Complex and Lafayette Park , serves as the president's official guest house and as a secondary residence for the president if needed.

    The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.

    Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.

    The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.

    Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

    Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet.

    Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

    For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

    The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.

    Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.

    As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

    Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff.

    The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval. Prior to , all former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 were protected by the Secret Service until the president's death.

    Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

    Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

    Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

    Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

    There are currently since January 20, five living former presidents. In order of office they are:. Jimmy Carter age 94 since Bush age 94 since Bill Clinton age 72 since Bush age 72 since Barack Obama age 57 since Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

    Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

    There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

    A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.

    Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.

    These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P.

    For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation. For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States.

    Executive branch of the U. Government Executive Office of the President. President [1] [2] The Honorable [3]. Head of State Head of Government.

    Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties.

    Powers of the President of the United States. Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.

    For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Four ruffles and flourishes and 'Hail to the Chief' long version.

    Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency. United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.

    Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States. List of residences of Presidents of the United States.

    Transportation of the President of the United States. This " see also " section may contain an excessive number of suggestions.

    Please ensure that only the most relevant links are given, that they are not red links , and that any links are not already in this article.

    September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Government of the United States portal. Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph.

    Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Tyler's policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.

    Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party. The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved September 4, The People Debate the Constitution, — New York, New York: A forgotten huge day in American history".

    Retrieved July 29, Retrieved January 22, The History of Power". Proceedings of the American Political Science Association. Origins and Development 5th ed.

    Its Origins and Development. The Making of the American Constitution. Commander in Chief Clause". National Constitution Center Educational Resources some internal navigation required.

    Retrieved May 23, The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. McPherson, Tried by War: United States Department of Defense.

    Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved February 25, About the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Federalist 69 reposting. Retrieved June 15, Archived from the original PDF on November 26, Retrieved December 15, No clear mechanism or requirement exists today for the president and Congress to consult.

    The War Powers Resolution of contains only vague consultation requirements. Instead, it relies on reporting requirements that, if triggered, begin the clock running for Congress to approve the particular armed conflict.

    By the terms of the Resolution, however, Congress need not act to disapprove the conflict; the cessation of all hostilities is required in 60 to 90 days merely if Congress fails to act.

    Many have criticized this aspect of the Resolution as unwise and unconstitutional, and no president in the past 35 years has filed a report "pursuant" to these triggering provisions.

    The President's War Powers". Retrieved September 28, Retrieved November 8, Presidents have sent forces abroad more than times; Congress has declared war only five times: President Reagan told Congress of the invasion of Grenada two hours after he had ordered the landing.

    He told Congressional leaders of the bombing of Libya while the aircraft were on their way. It was not clear whether the White House consulted with Congressional leaders about the military action, or notified them in advance.

    Foley, the Speaker of the House, said on Tuesday night that he had not been alerted by the Administration.

    Retrieved August 7, Retrieved February 5, Noel Canning , U. United States , U. Olson , U. Retrieved January 23, But not since President Gerald R.

    Ford granted clemency to former President Richard M. Nixon for possible crimes in Watergate has a Presidential pardon so pointedly raised the issue of whether the President was trying to shield officials for political purposes.

    The prosecutor charged that Mr. Weinberger's efforts to hide his notes may have 'forestalled impeachment proceedings against President Reagan' and formed part of a pattern of 'deception and obstruction.

    In light of President Bush's own misconduct, we are gravely concerned about his decision to pardon others who lied to Congress and obstructed official investigations.

    Former president Clinton issued pardons on his last day in office, including several to controversial figures, such as commodities trader Rich, then a fugitive on tax evasion charges.

    Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 8, Retrieved November 29, Archived from the original PDF on December 13, Retrieved November 9, Use of the state secrets privilege in courts has grown significantly over the last twenty-five years.

    In the twenty-three years between the decision in Reynolds [] and the election of Jimmy Carter, in , there were four reported cases in which the government invoked the privilege.

    Between and , there were a total of fifty-one reported cases in which courts ruled on invocation of the privilege.

    Because reported cases only represent a fraction of the total cases in which the privilege is invoked or implicated, it is unclear precisely how dramatically the use of the privilege has grown.

    But the increase in reported cases is indicative of greater willingness to assert the privilege than in the past. American Civil Liberties Union.

    Retrieved October 4, Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved November 11, The American Bar Association said President Bush's use of "signing statements", which allow him to sign a bill into law but not enforce certain provisions, disregards the rule of law and the separation of powers.

    Legal experts discuss the implications. Boy Scouts of America. The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved July 30, Retrieved May 14, Retrieved May 6, Archived from the original on December 28, The Kennedy White House Restoration.

    The White House Historical Association. Presidential idolatry is "Bad for Democracy " ". Twin Cities Daily Planet.

    But while her voiceover delivered a scathing critique, the video footage was all drawn from carefully-staged photo-ops of Reagan smiling with seniors and addressing large crowds U of Minnesota Press.

    Even before Kennedy ran for Congress, he had become fascinated, through his Hollywood acquaintances and visits, with the idea of image Gene Healy argues that because voters expect the president to do everything When they inevitably fail to keep their promises, voters swiftly become disillusioned.

    Yet they never lose their romantic idea that the president should drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees.

    Bush White House's claims are rooted in ideas "about the 'divine' right of kings" Retrieved September 20, Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch".

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    2 us präsident -

    Vielmehr wird diese Entscheidung einem Wahlmännerkollegium überlassen. Obwohl beide ursprünglich verschiedenen Parteien angehörten, traten sie bei der Wahl von im Rahmen der National Union Party gemeinsam an. Eine Republiken abhebende Tugend habe daher historisch nie existiert. Der ursprünglich parteilose Eisenhower, der wichtigste US-Kommandeur im Zweiten Weltkrieg, wurde nach Trumans Verzicht auf eine erneute Kandidatur aufgrund seiner enormen Popularität in der Bevölkerung von beiden Parteien als Kandidat umworben. Belknap und wegen der Gründung des ersten Nationalparks in Erinnerung.

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